Creative Power by Richard Foster
All the passages below are taken from Richard Foster’s book “Money, Sex and Power,” published in 1985.
The only cure for the love of power is the power of love.
– Sherri McAdam
There is a power that destroys. There is also a power that creates. The power that creates gives life and joy and peace. It is freedom and not bondage, life and not death, transformation and not coercion. The power that creates restores relationship and gives the gift of wholeness to all. The power that creates is spiritual power, the power that proceeds from God.
What does the power that creates look like? Think of Joseph sold into slavery, thrown into prison without hope but later rising to a position of great power and influence in the mightiest nation of the time. What a pilgrimage! In this position Joseph was able to combine spiritual discernment with political clout to avert a disastrous famine. Then the fateful day arrived when his brothers—the very ones who had sold him into slavery—came seeking famine relief. Joseph was faced with the great test of power. It would have been a perfect opportunity for revenge, but instead he chose to use his power for reconciliation. Scripture tells us that Joseph was overcome with emotion and compassion for his brothers. Joseph `could not control himself’ and `wept aloud,’ and finally `he fell upon his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. And he kissed all his brothers and wept upon them’ (Genesis 45:1-15 NRSV). This is a beautiful story of relationships restored by the exercise of creative power.
The power that creates is the power that restores relationships. William Wilberforce was a Christian politician who used the power of his position to help abolish the slave trade in the British Empire. The good of his prolonged efforts is beyond calculation. Families throughout Africa remained together because the gruesome British slave trade had been stopped. Talk about preserving relationships! And this is a story that could be repeated many times over as faithful believers have sought to apply God-given power creatively in the arena of politics and business.
The use of power to restore relationships is also a part of our personal, everyday world. The mother who rights a wrong between children is using her authority to restore broken relationships. The school principal who changes soul-destroying rules in the school system is breathing life into the hearts of students. The pastor who helps feuding committee members settle their differences is using power for healing in the community of faith. The company president who corrects the cost overruns of the project manager is using power to restore integrity and wholeness to the world of business. All of us in daily life encounter thousands of opportunities to enlist power in the service of reconciliation.
What does the power that creates look like? Think of Moses, who understood as few did the might and power of Egypt and who was forced to flee that power. In the desert he came to experience a new kind of power, the power of Yahweh. By the time Moses returned to face down the power of Egypt, he was a different person. Gone was the old arrogance; in its place was a new combination of meekness and confidence. The strong imperative `Let my people go’ was backed up by the mighty acts of God, which brought even mighty Pharaoh to his knees. The result was the most dramatic release of captives ever known in human history.
Creative power sets people free. When Martin Luther King, Jr., stood firm against America’s racism, millions were set free. When teachers unlock the joy of discovery in the minds of students, they are using the power of their position to liberate. When an older brother uses his superior status to build the self-esteem of younger siblings, he is using power to set them free. When the old destructive habit patterns of depression or fear are transformed by the power of God, the result is liberation.
What does the power that creates look like? Think of Jeremiah, who remained true to the word of God in the most discouraging of circumstances. We call him the weeping prophet and for good reason. In a day when the religious leaders were catering their message to fit the prevailing political winds, Jeremiah spoke the Dabar Yahweh, the word of the Lord. That word was a discouraging one at best, a word of defeat and not of victory. And the people rejected Jeremiah’s word of warning and even persecuted him. At one point he was thrown down a cistern and left to die. We are told that ‘Jeremiah sank in the mire’ (Jeremiah 38:6 NRSV). In many ways this simple statement is a good description of Jeremiah’s entire ministry. He had to watch his beloved country overthrown and ravaged and his own people deported as spoils of war.
But it was the teaching of Jeremiah—the very teaching that the people had rejected—that enabled Judah to hold onto faith in Yahweh throughout the long years of exile. You see, the people had elevated their belief in the invincibility of Zion into a cardinal doctrine of their faith. And when Zion was destroyed, their whole belief system came crashing down. Hadn’t God promised them Jerusalem would not fall? Where was God when the Babylonian hoards ravaged their land?
But Jeremiah had insisted over and over that Zion’s invincibility was predicated upon obedience to the Mosaic Covenant, and because they had disobeyed the covenant, Zion would fall. God had not failed them by allowing Jerusalem to fall; they had failed God by disobeying his covenant. Finally, Jeremiah spoke the words of hope and restoration and pointed to a new covenant, a covenant written not on tablets of stone but on the fleshy tablets of their hearts. `But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my law within them, and I will write it upon their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people’ (Jeremiah 31:33 NRSV). It was Jeremiah’s tenacity to the truth of Yahweh that enabled the people of Judah to keep faith in God when all the confident words of the false prophets were revealed as spurious.
Jeremiah reminds us that spiritual power sometimes looks like weakness. Faithfulness is more important than success, and the power to remain faithful is a great treasure indeed. Perhaps Jeremiah’s word to his servant Baruch is good counsel for us today, `And do you seek great things for yourself? Seek them not’ (Jeremiah 45:5 NRSV).
Dietrich Bonhoeffer knew the power of God that looks like weakness to the world. `When Christ calls a man,’ he said, `he bids him come and die.’1Bonhoeffer knew what it meant to die; he died to self, he died to all his hopes and dreams, and he died at the hands of Hitler’s SS Black Guards. But as the Scripture reminds us, a grain of wheat that falls to the ground and dies bears much fruit (John 12:24 NRSV). The fruit of Bonhoeffer’s life and death is beyond calculation. We are all in his debt. As G. Leibholz has said, ‘Bonhoeffer’s life and death has given us great hope for the future ._. . The victory which he has won was a victory for us all, a conquest never to be undone, of love, light and liberty.’2
What does the power that creates look like? Think of the early church gathered at the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15 NRSV). They had gathered to answer a momentous question: Can Gentiles have genuine faith in Christ without conformity to Jewish religious culture? It was an issue that could have easily split the Christian fellowship right down the middle. Yet as they gathered, as they talked, as they listened, the power of God broke through in a Spirit-led unity of heart and mind. Miraculously they saw that Gentiles could live faithfully before God within the context of their own culture and that Jews could do likewise. So the cultural captivity of the Church was broken, and believers everywhere could receive one another without needing to proselytize for their own culture. They experienced the power of unity in the Holy Spirit.
The power that creates produces unity. When John Woolman stood before the annual conference of the Quakers in 1758 and delivered his moving plea against slavery, the entire body, without spoken dissent, agreed to remove slavery from its midst. This unity of heart and mind is not easy to come by, but it is worth the effort. If we would learn to listen to the Lord together in our homes, in our churches, and in our businesses, we would see more of this unity of the Spirit. The family is the best place to begin. Father and mother can do much by leading the way in these matters.
What does the power that creates look like? Think of Jesus and his ministry of teaching and healing. Here we find the perfect display of perfect power. Everywhere he went, the powers of darkness were defeated, people were healed, relationships were restored. People came alive to God and alive to each other through the life-giving ministry of Jesus.
In the crucifixion the power that creates reached its apex. At the cross Satan sought to use all the power at his disposal to destroy Christ, but God turned it into the ultimate act of creative power. The penalty for sin was paid; the justice of God was satisfied. Through the cross of Christ, you and I can receive forgiveness and know the restoring of our relationship to God. Christ died for our sins, and in that death we see the power that creates.
Our response to this supreme act of power is gratitude. It is `love divine, all loves excelling.’ We can never hope or want to duplicate this act of power. We simply thank God for what he has done. Real forgiveness brings doxology. To know that God truly forgives all our sins and welcomes us into his presence is `joy unspeakable and full of glory.’ Doxology itself is power. As we live thankfully for God’s great gift, others are drawn to know this joy of the Lord that overcomes all things.
THE MARKS OF SPIRITUAL POWER
The power that creates is spiritual power, and it is in stark contrast to human power. The apostle Paul spoke of the `flesh,’ and by it he meant human-initiated activity without the aid of divine grace. People can do many things in the power of the flesh, but they cannot do the work of the Spirit of God. The power of the flesh relies upon such things as proper pedigree, positions of status, and connections among those in the power structure. But Paul, you see, had given up on the flesh. He said that he counted those things as `dung,’ for his sights were set on a greater power, `that I may know him and the power of his resurrection, and may share his sufferings, becoming like him in his death, that if possible I may attain the resurrection from the dead’ (Philippians 3:10-11 NRSV).
Now, when we see people desperately scrambling for the `dung’—human power—we can be sure that they know precious little of the `power of his resurrection.’ What, then, are the marks of this power that proceeds from God?
Love is the first mark of spiritual power. Love demands that power be used for the good of others. Notice Jesus’ use of power—the healing of the blind, the sick, the maimed, the dumb, the leper, and many others. Luke, the physician, observes that `all the crowd sought to touch him, for power came forth from him and healed them all’ (Luke 6:19 NRSV). Notice in each case the concern for the good of others, the motivation of love. In Christ, power is used to destroy the evil so that love can redeem the good.
Power for the purpose of advancing reputations or inflating egos is not power motivated by love. When God used Paul and Barnabas to heal a cripple at Lystra, the astonished people tried to turn them into Greek gods, but they tore their clothes and shouted out, `We also are men, of like nature with you’ (Acts 14:15 NRSV). Many of us might not find the idea of deity status so reprehensible. Think of the power over people we would have, and, after all, we would use the power to such good ends! But power that is used to advance reputations destroys the user, because with it we aspire to be gods.
This leads us to the second mark of spiritual power, humility. Humility is power under control. Nothing is more dangerous than power in the service of arrogance. Power under the discipline of humility is teachable. Apollos was a powerful preacher, but he was also willing to learn from others (Acts 18:24-26 NRSV). In the course of his powerful ministry, Peter made some serious mistakes, but when confronted with his errors he had the humility to change (e.g., Acts 10:1-35; Galatians 2:11-21 NRSV).
Believe me, this is no small matter. Many have been destroyed in their walk with God simply because their exercise of power was not controlled by humility. Power without humility is anything but a blessing.
James Nayler was one of the greatest of the early Quaker preachers. But he got carried away by his exercise of power, and in 1656 some of his wilder followers persuaded him to reenact at Bristol Jesus’ Palm Sunday ride into Jerusalem. This act proved to be his undoing. He was tried and convicted of blasphemy. The story does have a happy ending, for in time Nayler repented of his presumption, but he had lost his effectiveness in the service of Christ. Power destroys when it is not coupled with the spirit of humility.
To really know the power of God is to be keenly aware that we have done nothing more than to receive a gift. Gratitude, not pride, is our only appropriate response. The power is not ours, though we are given the freedom to use it. But when we truly walk with God, our only desire is to use power in the service of Christ and his kingdom.
This leads into the third mark of spiritual power, which is self-limitation. The power that creates refrains from doing some things—even good things—out of respect for the individual. Have you ever noticed the number of times Jesus refused to use power? He refused to dazzle people by jumping off the pinnacle of the temple (Matt. 4:5 NRSV). He rejected the temptation to make more `wonder bread’ to validate his ministry (John 6:26 NRSV). He refused to do many wonderful works in his own hometown because of the unbelief of the people (Luke 4:16-27 NRSV). He said no to the Pharisees’ demand that he give a sign to prove he was the Messiah (Matthew 12:38 NRSV). At his arrest, Jesus reminded Peter that he could have summoned a whole army of angels to his rescue, but he did not (Matthew 26:53).
The power that comes from the Holy Spirit is not to be used lightly. Paul said, `Lay hands suddenly on no man’ (1 Timothy 5:22, KJV). We do people a disservice if we bring them into the power of God before they are ready. Those who live and move in God know that there is a time to withhold the hand of power just as there is a time to use it.
Joy is the fourth mark of spiritual power. This is no grimfaced, dour effort! Far from it! To see the kingdom of Christ break into the midst of darkness and depression is a wonderful thing. M. Scott Peck writes, `The experience of spiritual power is basically a joyful one.’3
When the lame man was healed, he went `walking and leaping and praising God’ (Acts 3:8 NRSV). That is a good description of our spontaneous reaction to the work of God. I once prayed with a veteran missionary over some deep inner hurts that stemmed from the tragic death of her son. As we prayed there was a very special sense of God’s presence and then the clear release of the powers of fear and guilt. The Presence was so real, the release so definite, that we were both filled with a sense of wonder and awe. The time that has passed since those first prayer sessions has only validated what we experienced then. Months later, she wrote, `I have such peace. Rich, beautiful, holy joy lives inside me and just bubbles out. Finally, I know what Jesus meant when he said there would be rivers of living water flowing in us and through us. This is something I have looked for all my life.’
I hope you understand that I am referring to something more profound than the bubbly `joy’ of the superficial. The rich inner joy of spiritual power knows sorrow and is acquainted with grief. Joy and anguish often have a symbiotic relationship.
Vulnerability is the fifth mark of spiritual power. The power that comes from above is not filled with bravado and bombast. It lacks the symbols of human authority; indeed, its symbols are a manger and a cross. It is power that is not recognized as power. It is a self-chosen position of meekness that to human eyes looks powerless. It is the power of the `wounded healer,’ to use the phrase of Henri Nouwen.
The power from above leads from weakness. It is in contradiction to the society of the strong and the capable. Once when the apostle Paul was struggling with his own vulnerability the word of God came to him, saying, `My power is made perfect in weakness,’ and so he saw that `when I am weak, then I am strong’ (2 Corinthians 12:9-10 NRSV).
What we often call the parable of the prodigal son might be more aptly called `the parable of the powerless almighty father.4 In the father we see the power that does not dominate, the power that patiently waits. The parable is about God, of course: it is also a parable that was lived out in the life of Jesus. Look at him working patiently with stubborn, rebellious disciples. Look at him at his trial, speaking not a word. Look at him hanging on a wooden throne in total helplessness. These, I submit to you, are acts of spiritual power of the highest order.
In prison, Alexander Solzhenitsyn discovered that, whenever he tried to maintain a measure of power over his own life by acquiring food or clothing, he was at the mercy of his captors. But when he accepted and even embraced his own vulnerability, his jailers had no power over him. In a sense, he had become the powerful, they the powerless.5
We who understand the power of defenselessness may well have a genuine advantage. As our world becomes more complicated, the feeling of being powerless has become the order of the day. People we do not even know make decisions that affect us profoundly; we are not in control, and we know it. But the normal reactions of anger and resignation do not need to be ours, because we know what Jurgen Moltmann calls `the power of the powerless.’6
The sixth mark of spiritual power is submission. Jesus knew what it meant to submit to the ways of God: `The Son can do nothing of his own accord, but only what he sees the Father doing; for whatever he does, that the Son does likewise’ (John 5:19 NRSV). As we learn to experience on a personal level this same kind of intimate cooperation with the Father, we will enter more deeply into the meaning of true power.
There is a power that comes through spiritual gifts, and there is a power that comes through spiritual positioning. The two work in unison. Submission gives us spiritual positioning. We are positioned under the leadership of Christ and under the authority of others. We find others in the Christian fellowship who can further us in the things of God. We submit to Scripture to learn more perfectly the ways of God with human beings. We submit to the Holy Spirit to learn the meaning of obedience. We submit to the life of faith in order to understand the difference between human power and divine power.
`Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ,’ said Paul (Ephesians 5:21 NRSV). Paul himself was in submission to the church council at Jerusalem (Acts 15 NRSV). Peter and Barnabas came under submission to Paul’s correction when they failed to extend the right hand of fellowship to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:11-21 NRSV). Apollos submitted to Aquila and Priscilla when it was clear that they knew more than he in the things of Christ (Acts 18:24-26 NRSV).
Submission is power because it places us in a position in which we can receive from others. We are impoverished people indeed if our world is narrowed down to ourselves. But when, with humility of heart, we submit to others, vast new resources are opened to us. When we submit to others, we have access to their wisdom, their counsel, their rebuke, their encouragement.
Freedom is the final mark of spiritual power. People were set free when Jesus and the apostles exercised power. The lame could walk; the blind could see; the guilty knew forgiveness; and most wonderful of all, the demon-possessed were released. The powers of this dark evil age were defeated, and the captives were set free.
There is more, however, to this matter of freedom. Notice how Jesus worked with people. `He will not break a bruised reed or quench a smoldering wick,’ prophesied Isaiah (Matthew 12:20 NRSV). And it was true. Jesus never ran roughshod over the weak. He never snuffed out even the smallest flicker of hope. He never used his power to exploit or to control others. It would have been easy for him to do otherwise. The poor who heard him so gladly would have done anything for him because they were so grateful just to have someone pay attention to them. But Jesus refused to exploit the power he had over them. No, he freed them to be themselves, fully and uniquely.
I once experienced this power that frees in an especially vivid way. I had just returned from a conference where I had made some rather significant decisions, and I was telling a friend who was a spiritual mentor about the experience. At one point I exclaimed, `Oh, by the way, I made one decision that I know you have been wanting me to make for a long time. . .’ My friend interrupted, `Wait just a minute! Let’s be clear about one thing. My business, my only business, is to bring the truth of God as I see it, and then to simply love you regardless of what you do or don’t do. It is not my business to straighten you out or to get you to do the right thing.’ After our visit I thought about the significance of this simple statement. His care and compassion had always been evident, but in those words I discovered a new dimension of freedom—a freedom that allowed intimate friendship without a slavish need to please on either side. His power in my life is real, but it is a power that frees, not binds. Human power is power over someone, divine power has no such need to control—`sine vi humana sed verbo, “without human power, simply by the word.”7
POWER IN THE MARKETPLACE
This life-giving spiritual power is of value to us only as it is fleshed out in ordinary life. It will never do to speak piously of love, joy, and humility without rooting those realities in home, office, and school. What does spiritual power look like in the marketplace of life?
In the individual, power is to be used to promote self-control, not self-indulgence. Self-control is at home with both self-esteem and self-denial. Robert Schuller calls self-esteem `the human hunger for the divine dignity that God intended to be our emotional birthright as children created in His image.’8 Self-denial is the way this human hunger for self-esteem is satisfied, and self-control embraces them both.
Discipline is the language of self-control. The disciplined person is the person who can do what needs to be done when it needs to be done. The disciplined person is the person who can live appropriately in life. Such a person can laugh when laughter is appropriate, weep when weeping is appropriate, work when working is appropriate, play when playing is appropriate, pray when praying is appropriate, speak when speaking is appropriate, and be silent when silence is appropriate. Jean-Pierre de Caussade beautifully describes the life of self-control, `The soul, light as a feather, fluid as water, innocent as a child, responds to every movement of grace like a floating balloon.’9
We experience control over self-indulgence by the power of God. Saint Francis called the human body `Brother Ass,’ because we are supposed to ride the ass rather than the ass riding us. It is self-control that gives us authority over `Brother Ass.’ From self-control comes freedom, for we are becoming what we were created to be.
In the home, power is to be used to nurture confidence, not subservience. How crucial it is for parents to use the authority they have over their children to build them up rather than tear them down, to encourage them rather than discourage them. A very wise parent once said to me, `Every “No, no” must be matched by ten “Atta boys.”’ Criticism and correction is certainly necessary, but it must never be allowed to become destructive. As James Dobson says, we are `to shape the will of the child … but to do so without breaking his spirit.’10 The use of power in the home can be a blessing if it is surrounded by a spirit of caring.
In the marriage, power is to be used to enhance communication, not isolation. Husbands and wives have power over each other, and they know it. All of us have certain things within us that will trigger utterly irrational reactions. When our spouse even comes near one of these issues, it is as though he or she has tripped a high-voltage lever. Knowledge is power, and in the intimacy of marriage we learn in explicit detail the nature of each other’s ‘high-voltage levers.’ A particular topic or phrase, a certain way of acting, a particular tone of voice, even something as simple as the lift of an eyebrow or the shrug of a shoulder, can trigger these levers and start World War III.
These levers are real dynamite. Many times they have to do with old hurts and wounds in the marriage, and they have the power to block all genuine love and communication. But in the power of God we learn to lovingly avoid things that can be destructive to each other. We can also ask God to rewire our internal circuitry in such a way that these old hurts, these old wounds, are desensitized and no longer control us.
Our intimate knowledge of each other also means that we know what will enhance the relationship and encourage communication. We make use of this knowledge to open wide the channels of love and compassion.
In the Church, power is to be used to inspire faith, not conformity. Bishops, pastors, elders, deacons, and others have real power over people and should use it for life, not death. In matters that are essential to our spiritual growth, we want to do all we can to rouse people to action. But we must frankly admit that many things in our church life have little to do with righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. We do not need to proselytize people for our culture where it is not necessary as an expression of love of God and neighbor. In such matters we give people freedom in the gospel to be themselves without cultural conformity.
I remember so well `my pastor.’ I was young in both years and faith. I was also shy, and to compensate I would often show off and act boisterous. My pastor, however, bore patiently with me through those years of growing. He never tried to make me conform to the religious culture in the trivial matters of dress or speech. He gave me plenty of opportunity to struggle with theological issues, while at the same time setting forth clearly the fundamental tenets of the faith. I was inspired toward faith without conformity, a legacy for which I will always be grateful.
In the school, power is to be used to cultivate growth, not inferiority. Let us not kid ourselves; teachers and students are in a power relationship, but it can be a power to lift, not to destroy, if they understand their purpose. When teachers use their authority to stimulate children to learn, to think, to go on an adventure of discovery, they are engaging in a life-giving ministry. But it is very easy for a teacher to push too hard, and to criticize too severely; when this happens, the child feels worthless. Teachers need to prod without demeaning, encourage excellence without depreciating those who fall short.
I vividly remember a teacher who prodded me to excellence without demeaning my shortcomings. He was a philosophy professor, and although I cannot remember all he taught me about Plato and Kierkegaard, I will never forget his love of words. He handled words in a way that was new for me: as a treasure to be cherished rather than propaganda to be maneuvered. He had a special regard for the mystery and power of words. In fact, words seemed to usher him into another world, a world in which I was a foreigner. I was very clumsy with words, so his skill with language frightened me as much as it intrigued me. He never depreciated me for my clumsiness but always urged me to try again. And I did try again, until I became at home in this world of words—a world in which zeal and insight meet in friendship, a world in which truth and beauty kiss each other. He was a teacher who saw past my feelings of inferiority and encouraged me to grow.
On the job, power is to be used to facilitate competence, not promote feelings of inadequacy. The business world is one place in which a Christian witness to creative power is desperately needed. Subordinates often feel helpless and manipulated, but it does not need to be this way. One thing all of us want to do is a good job. We want to know that we have made a genuine contribution, and we want to be competent in our area of service. Employers have the power to help realize this deep desire by providing opportunities for advanced training, by carefully delegating increased responsibility, and by helping employees realize their full potential. In fact, one definition of management is `meeting the needs of people as they work at accomplishing their jobs.‘11
The employee also has power, the power of encouragement. It may be hard for us to believe, but it is lonely at the top. Executives find that genuine friendships are hard to come by, because people fear their power. And those who do not fear it often are hoping to use it.
Employees who follow the way of Christ will reach out to their employers. They discern the hurt and loneliness of those who are over them. They give their friendship with no strings attached. They pray for their superiors and encourage them in every way possible. This, too, is a ministry of power.
THE POWER TO LIBERATE
We all exercise power over others. We are all affected by the power others exercise over us. We can choose the destructive power that is used to dominate and manipulate, or we can choose the creative power that is used to lead and liberate. It is only through the grace of God that we are able to take something as dangerous as power and make it creative and life-giving. [196-212]
Sherri McAdam, a former student of mine, wrote the sentence used as the epigraph on Chapter 11 on a final exam for the course `Pioneers in the Spiritual Life.’
1. Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship, trans. R. H. Fuller (London: S.C.M. Press, 1964), p. 7.
2. Quoted in ibid., p. 35.
3. M. Scott Peck, The Road Less Traveled (NewYork: Simon & Schuster, 1978), p. 286.
4. Moloney, A Life of Promise: Poverty, Chastity, Obedience, p. 128.
5. See Aleksander L Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, trans. Thomas P Whitney (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). See also Cheryl Forbes, The Religion of Power, p. 35.
6. See The Power of the Powerless by Jurgen Moltmann, trans. Margaret Kohl (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983).
7. Martin Hengel, Christ and Power, trans. Everett R. Kalin (Belfast: Christian journals, 1977), p. 81.
8. Robert H. Schuller, Self-Esteem: The New Reformation (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1982), p. 15.
9. Jean-Pierre de Caussade, The Sacrament of the Present Moment, trans. Kitty Muggeridge (London: Fount Paperbacks, 1981), p. 22.
10. James Dobson, The Strong-Willed Child (Wheaton, Ill.: Tyndale House, 1978), p.76.
11. Myron Rush, Management: A Biblical Approach (Wheaton, Ill.: Victor Books, 1983), p. 13.